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NTo continue the discussion regarding custody and unmarried parents, often, there is a misconception that in Ohio, Mothers have superior rights over Father’s when it comes to Custody and Visitation. Mothers have sole custody until a Court determines otherwise. However, once a Father has established paternity and filed for Custody and/or parenting time, the Court does not favor one parent over another, but makes a decision based purely on the best interest of the child.
If Father files an action in Juvenile Court for visitation or Custody, Father still has no rights until there is a Court order giving him some right, even if a Father is paying child support. Child support establishes paternity, but no other rights beyond that.
This can make it appear that Mothers have superior rights, but not the case once in court. Although a Mother does not have to allow visitation until ordered by the Court, an unreasonable denial of visitation could be used against the Mother. I have seen Mothers who have refused “reasonable” visitation lose custody if there was not a real safety concern, not just a difference in parenting styles or other personal issues between parents. Even domestic violence between the parents does not necessarily mean that a Court will limit Father’s contact with the child.
The Court will make a determination based on what is the best interest of the child. The Court cannot consider who makes more money or has a nicer home. The Court will look at the bond parents and siblings. If a Father had not seen a child for most of the child’s life, that will be considered, but the court will want to know, why wasn’t father active in the child’s life. If Mother was the reason, this could be used against Mother. If Father just started paying child support and is trying to avoid that, the court will consider that as well. On the same note, if a parent is in arrears with child support, that is a factor, though rarely in regards to visits but as to Custody.
If a parent is asking to modify a prior award of custody, the party asking for custody will need to show a change of circumstance. This is because once the court has made a decision, it is meant to be permanent in nature and should not be disturbed unless a change of circumstance showing that it is no longer in the best interest to maintain the current custody arrangement. This change of circumstance is not a change that the non-custodial parent has made. Meaning, it doesn’t matter if the non-custodial parent has turned their life around.
Do parents need an attorney in custody matters? It depends. If the parties can work it out, and are willing to mediate, than they can probably resolve the matter without an attorney. However, if the matter is going to trial, legal representation would be advisable. Most pro se litigants struggle with how to get evidence before the court. This is governed by the Rules of Evidence, Local Rules of the Court, and applicable statute. The Magistrate or Judge is not going to want a parade of friends and family testifying as to the character of the parties, but will only want to hear from witnesses who have first handle knowledge about the issues before the court. Professional witnesses who are unbiased and neutral will have more value than friends and family. What the Magistrate is looking for is clear and convincing evidence of what is in the best interest off the children.
You get one chance at a trial. You don’t like the Decision, you can object and/or appeal, but you will not have an opportunity to get in new evidence or redo the trail. The higher Court is only looking at the transcripts and evidence that was admitted to make their determination on whether to uphold the decision or not. This can also add additional expense, as the objecting party will need to pay for transcripts of the proceedings.
And at the end of the day, unless there is clear and convincing evidence that there is a safety risk, the Court often falls back on the Local Courts Standard Order of Parenting Time. In Hamilton County that is every other weekend and one day during the week for the nonresidential parent, alternating holidays and extended parenting time between two and four weeks.
When it comes down to it, unless evidence is presented to the contrary, it is in the best interest of children to have both parents active in their life.
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